The Anatomy of a Budd Shirt

Back body - the back panel of the shirt.

Collar Collars vary in style and cut adapting to both casual and more formal occasions. At Budd we offer a wide choice of collars within our bespoke and made to measure services. Our ready-to-wear service encompasses our own Budd collar. This is a very English/forward Collar. We also offer our semi-spread Webster Brothers collar for a small range of shirts as well as wing collars on dress shirts and detachable collars for our neck band shirts. All Budd collars are constructed with a floating canvas (interlining) and can be formed with up to ten panels depending on the amount of firmness required. All collars are turned by hand and come with removable stiffeners.

Cuffs - Budd cuffs are made up of two panels and include canvas interlining for added support. Our business shirts offer a double cuff, 2 ¾” deep and should be worn with cufflinks, whilst our weekend shirts have a single button cuff.

Front bodies - the front panels of the shirt covering the chest. There are two front bodies.

Front Hem - Sometimes referred to as a “placket” the front hem is the centre front opening of the shirt aiding the wearer to put on and remove the garment. The front hem holds the buttons and button holes. A good quality front hem is formed by the raw edge of the front bodies at the centre front being folded, rather than front hems being constructed and attached separately. Budd opts for a folded front hem and can tailor the style to the customer’s needs. Such styles include a raised or flat hem. Budd Shirtmakers traditionally use Nacre Mother of Pearl Buttons on the front hem and throughout the garment.  

Gauntlet - The top and under-gauntlets are located above the cuffs and create openings at the sleeve ends for ease of wear. Budd Shirts achieve high quality detailing through the under-gauntlets being sewn into the sleeve as a separate piece to the top gauntlet. To complete the refined finish Budd Shirtmakers insert a Mother of Pearl button fastening ensuring a polished appearance.

Gusset - this is an additional piece of cloth that is stitched into the shirt joining the front and back bodies at the bottom (or “tail”) of the shirt to provide reinforcement.  Most good quality shirts include this feature. 

Hand work - our seamstresses give careful attention to every individual Budd Shirt. They make the shirts using flat sewing machines with a single needle, producing small neat stitching and strong, clean seams. All of our stitching is done with 100% cotton thread. Our machines are all manually worked and each individual component of our shirts cut and laid in by hand. 

Matching the patterns - Stripes and checks should match up perfectly on a shirt. This detail is a mark of excellent quality and precision. Our team take this into consideration during both the cutting and making phase of the shirt.

Yoke - this is the upper back panel of the shirt covering the shoulders. Budd opts for a split yoke consisting of four panels which gives an excellent fit and is a true sign of both quality and traditional bespoke craftsmanship. Our highly established cutter John Butcher creates gathers in the shirt at the yoke seam, creating an added sophisticated appearance to Budd shirts. 

Quality control - both our cutters and seamstresses have an extraordinary eye for detail and check the quality and development of the shirt after each and every stage of the process.

Cloths and Patterns

Batiste is a very lightweight and somewhat transparent fabric. It is particularly good to use when manufacturing clothing for warm climates and well suited for summer shirts. Batiste cotton is also widely used for making pyjamas.

Bemberg - usually Rayon, this is a silky material that is actually made from cotton and used for lining, mainly in coats

Bengal stripes - one of the most classic shirt patterns, these are narrow stripes on a white ground, usually in navy or dark red. 

Brushed Cotton is traditionally used for casual shirts, including many Tatersall check styles. It has a slightly napped surface and is very soft against the skin. It is particularly popular in the winter months and is most commonly used for casual shirts.

Cashmerello - a luxurious and soft, cashmere and cotton blend, woven by Swiss mill, Alumo. It is a popular choice for both our shirts and nightwear. 

Chalk stripe - generally used in suiting and consisting of a white stripe on a usually grey or navy ground. 

Cottons are soft to the skin, cool, absorbent and comfortable for the wearer. They are the number one choice when it comes to shirts. Below are some of the major cottons used in shirt-making.

Denim - a heavy weight cotton, normally used for jeans, but enjoying a recent resurgence in shirting too, thanks to finer weaving techniques. 

Fancies is an overarching term for any shirts that are patterned/printed as opposed to plain.

Gingham - a small check design, usually against a white ground.

Glencheck - Similar to the Prince of Wales check design, but without an overcheck. This is a checked design made up using the houndstooth motif in a repetitive and layered fashion. 

Graph check - a simple, evenly spaced check. The name says it all. 

Herringbone - a diagonal weave design, achieved by weaving the yarn in a diagonal structure. To achieve the herringbone look, the direction of the weave is changed so as to create the zig-zag effect.

Houndstooth hounds-tooth check or hound's tooth is also known as dogtooth check. It comprises a two tone pattern, made up of broken checks or abstract four-pointed shapes, joined together and repeated at evenly spaced distances. 

Linen has a grainy and slightly coarse texture and consists of flax fibres. This fabric is robust yet lightweight and is more absorbent than cotton. Once the material of choice for shirt-making, linen is now traditionally used in summer apparel. Linen softens with washing and improves with age. It creates a wonderfully at ease look and whilst it does crumple, this is very acceptable and contributes to its relaxed feel. 

Madras check - a check pattern, usually in bright colours that has its roots in India.

Marcella (sometimes referred to as “pique”) is a type of cotton used on dress shirt and waistcoats. It is a double twill and hence denser than a standard twill. It has a distinct woven pattern, almost reminiscent of honeycomb.

Oxford cloth combines dyed and un-dyed yarns. Shirts made out of Oxford cloth are durable yet soft to the touch. The fabric is often used for weekend or button cuff shirts with a button down collar and is popular with American markets.

Poplin consists of a fine warp yarn and a thick filling and is a popular choice for shirts due to its crisp, supple touch and appearance. Shirts made from poplin soften and improve with age.

Prince of Wales Check - a window pane check woven into a simple Glencheck design. The windowpane check is usually in red or blue, but other colours are also used. 

Puppytooth Check - follows the same design as houndstooth (see above) but reduced in scale,

Royal Oxford has a similar weave construction toOxford however it is comprised of finer yarns contributing to an overall more sophisticated aesthetic.

Sea Island cotton is the ultimate indulgence and considered the best shirting fabric due to its silky touch which can sometimes be mistaken for silk! Its weave construction consists of a high thread count, hence the luxurious feel of this material. Sea Island is sourced primarily from the West Indies and more recently Egypt.   

Shepherd’s Check - similar to gingham but distinguished by its visible diagonal twill pattern.  

Tartan - a checked cloth historically associated with Scottish clans. The term now refers to cloths that follow a similar design and ladopt similar colourways.

Tattersall check - a casual shirt with a cream or light beige ground and a check design often in green/blue/dark red or brown. Often worn at weekends for a country look and paired with a sports jacket.  It was traditionally used as the lining in Hunting pinks too. 

Twill fabrics have a distinct diagonal surface pattern and weave enabling reinforced durability in addition to a dynamic appearance. 

Voile has a twisted yarn formation. It has light weight and diaphanous qualities and is cool when used for clothing. Usually voile consists of either 100% cotton or is part cotton, combined with linen or polyester.


Button-down shirt - originally created by Brooks Brothers and with a nod to the preppy look. The collar tips button to the breast of the shirt.  The rolls is often a little softer and the collar classic, not spread.

Cutaway collar - sometimes referred to as a spread collar. The points of the shirt collar are set far apart. Often more European and contemporary in style, it is not for everybody and  when worn with a tie, sits wide of the knot. 

Forward collar - this is Budd’s preferred collar shape. It is more closed than others and works perfectly with a tie. This is a very English collar type, typical of Jermyn Street. 

Neck band - also known as a grandad collar, is a collarless shirt, worn either on its own or with the addition of a detachable collar and accompanying studs. 

Semi spread collar - a compromise between a forward and spread collar and less of a statement than a cutaway. This works very well worn with tie, or on its own. 

Spread collar - this is a more open collar shape, particularly popular in Europe and often favoured by Italians


Button cuff - a shirt cuff that fastens with buttons and does not turn back. Generally used for casual shirts. 

Cocktail cuff - a favourite with our cutters and brough to popularity by James Bond

Double cuff  - more formal, turnback shirt cuffs that require cufflinks.

French cuff - this is the same as a double cuff and is most often worn with cufflinks.

Qualities and Supers 

Much like suit cloth in bespoke tailoring, cotton shirting is also graded. The term “Super” in the context of fabrics refers to the grade/quality of a material and indicates how fine the fabric is - the higher the number the better the quality. Budd and most shirt-makers use Super 120s, Super 140s and Super 170s. Other grades are also available.   

Two Fold fabrics consist of two individual yarns twisted together to form one yarn and thus create high quality, durable fabric. Two fold fabrics are of superior quality to those comprising of single yarns.


Bespoke - the art of cutting a garment to order, for the individual, as per their own, personal specifications. 

Blade - the width of a tie’s front piece.  Budd’s ties are normally 8.5cm wide.

Braces - in the US braces are called Suspenders. They are used to hold trousers up and give them the perfect hang. They come with clip or button fastenings. We advise on button fastenings every time as they look more elegant.  

Canvas - this is used in most bespoke work to help give shape and structure to a garment.

Charleston bow tie - a 1920s Budd original bow that we have now reproduced. It boasts two rosebud like ends.

Club tie - a term often used for striped ties, but its roots lie firmly in the gentlemen’s clubs of England or the United States. Sometimes refers to school or university ties too. 

Collar stay - small batons that insert into a collar in order to keep the points fresh and stiff.

Cutter - responsible for bespoke orders. The cutter takes the customer’s measurements, advises on cut and fit, drafts and cuts the pattern and fits the garment. 

Dress Shirt - worn with black or white tie. Black tie requires a Marcella or pleated front shirt, whilst wihte tie dictates a stiff bibbed shirt worn with detachable wing collar. Both are best work with dress studs. 

Dress waistcoat - worn under a white tie tailcoat and atop a stiff bibbed shirt. Usually in white Marcella or pique cotton and backless. Our dress vests are in Marcella cotton and are sized in S, M, L and XL in accordance to height. 

Fishtail - a high back feature on trousers that splits into two, designed to be worn with braces. The fishtail works well under a waistcoat, stopping it from rolling up when the wearer bends over. 

Fitting - a consultation with a cutter where a garment on order is tried on, enabling the cutter to review fit and any necessary amendments. 

Four in hand - a simple tie knot named after an English club that existed in the 19th century. 

Gusset - this is the small fold of cloth or triangle often found at the bottom of a shirt’s side seams. It is traditionally used for strength, although many shirtmakers use it for purely aesthetic purposes. 

Jacquard - a term applied to cloths, in particular silks, where the pattern is woven directly into the cloth, using special looms as opposed to printed on. 

Kipper tie - a very broad tie, often with a garish patten.

Merino wool - tightly woven wool from the Merino sheep. 

Morning Coat - a grey or black long, cut away coat, deriving from the frock coat. It is worn for formal occasions such as investitures at Buckingham Palace, Garden parties, Weddings and Royal Ascot. 

Morning Vest - usually buff or grey and in either linen or wool and worn under a morning coat.  The waistcoat can be single or double breasted. Pastel tones such as sugar pink, soft yellow and baby blue are also popular and lighten the look.

Necktie - so obvious it shouldn’t need explaining. A good tie should be fully hand-slipped and preferably not too narrow.  An essential part of all formal outfits, it is important that your tie makes a good knot. Ties can lend a lot of character to your outfit and help set the tone.  Budd is a specialist in ancient madder silk ties, as well as Jacquards, Grenadines and wovens.

Nightshirt - our nightshirts arrive just below the knee are extremely comfortable. Generously cut, they are made up with the same cloths that we use for our shirts.  Each one is hand cut and has contrasting piped edges and an outbreast pocket. Budd is one of only a few companies to carry nightshirts, yet the represent one of our most popular products. 

Outbreast pocket - the pocket found on the front left panel of a shirt or jacket. 

Pyjamas - generously cut shirt and trousers for sleeping and lounging about it. Budd has a long tradition of producing its own pyjamas, making them right here in London.  The company offers everything from silk, linen and Cashmerello, through to poplin and Batiste cotton.

Raglan sleeve - usually used in tailoring, our Senior Cutter this year successfully adapted the raglan sleeves for shirts too. It has been adopted by all of the Budd staff, working particularly well in Cashmerello and linen and is incredibly comfortable.  In a raglan garment, the sleeve and shoulder are made from one piece of cloth.

Repp - a plain weave fabric with a prominently corded surface, usually used for silk ties and bows. 

Shell - the outermost part of the tie and the part that is visible to others. This envelopes the lining.

Six/seven fold ties - a luxurious tie that requires great skill on the part of the pattern cutter and craftsman. Instead of using four pieces of silk as per the four in hand method, one large piece of silk is folded silk or seven times in such a way that it holds its shape and does not thereby require any interlining. Recent years have even seen nine fold designs emerge. 

Slim fit - a shirt cut to fit close to the body for those with a slighter frame.

Slip stitch - this is a hidden stitch within the tie that holds it together.

Tipping - this is the visible triangle, diamond at the end of a tie on its rear side.  It can be coloured, tonal or left unfilled.

Waistcoat slips - also known as demis, these are small strips of white linen or Marcella that fasten to the underside of a morning vest to provide a small trim and contrast. The tradition of wearing slips originates from a nineteenth century trend for wearing multiple vests at once!

Windsor knot - a fuller version of the four-in-hand knot worn by Edward, the Duke of Windsor.  Some feel it is a little bulky, but it does work well with spread/cutaway collars.  It is argued that rather than wearing a more substantial knot as an affectation, the Duke’s ties had a thicker lining, hence a little more bulk. Many like the compromise of a half Windsor too.